2015 to 2010

Diplomacy, Development and Security in the Information Age

Shanthi Kalathil, editor

From Wikileaks to the aftermath of the Arab Spring, policymakers have been confronted with the thorny ramifications of ubiquitous global information flows. Two key phenomena have emerged as the new hallmarks of international relations: heightened transparency and increased volatility. They require a refocusing of the lens through which we view international affairs, and present both challenges and opportunities for state and non-state actors.

These themes and more are explored in a new collection of essays, Diplomacy, Development and Security in the Information Age, edited by Shanthi Kalathil. Featuring contributions on issues ranging from cybersecurity to diplomacy and fragile states, the book points toward a foreign policy strategy of resilience, credibility and adaptability for harnessing opportunities in the information age.

Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, 2013

2010 to 2005

Diplomacy and Security in the Twenty-first Century

Janne E. Nolan

The efforts of the Discourse, Dissent and Strategic Surprise working group underscored the need for reforms not just in the intelligence community, as has been widely advocated since 9/11, but to redress shortcomings in the policy-making process as well. To this end, the Institute for the Study of Diplomacy has launched a new study to identify systemic weaknesses in the way the U.S. government integrates intelligence support, diplomacy, and policy implementation in the management of international security problems. An experienced group of former policymakers and specialists, many of whom served on the previous panel and once again chaired by Janne Nolan at ISD, is drawing lessons from recent historical cases of regional nuclear proliferation. The objective is to produce recommendations for improving the way intelligence informs policy choices to help sustain effective initiatives aimed at achieving desired security outcomes in the 21st century.

Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, 2009

America's Role in the World

Thomas R. Pickering and Chester A. Crocker, Project Co-Chairs
Casimir A. Yost, Project Director

This report identifies critical foreign policy choices that will face the next president of the United States. The working group included individuals who had worked in Republican and Democratic administrations. Unlike other reports, ISD's does not offer specific prescriptions for dealing with these issues, rather it offers a comprehensive agenda of issues for the next administration. In short order, the next president of the United States must comprehend and address the driving forces transforming the world, the geopolitical challenges facing America, the constraints on American capacity to conduct an effective foreign policy, and the fundamental choices that will confront America in 2009. Thomas R. Pickering and Chester A. Crocker served as Project Co-Chairs; Casimir A. Yost is the Project Director and Director of the Institute for the Study of Diplomacy.

Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, 2008

Diplomacy in a Dangerous World: A Conversation with America's Top Diplomats

On October 29, 2007, the Institute for the Study of Diplomacy hosted a roundtable with Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs R. Nicholas Burns, and his predecessors as Under Secretaries from past administrations. This was a rare opportunity to hear from the nation’s top diplomatic practitioners together in one room. The Under Secretary for Political Affairs is the third most senior position in the State Department, and traditionally at the center of U.S. diplomacy and foreign policy formulation.

Amb. Burns was joined by David D. Newsom, Marc Grossman, Robert Kimmitt, and Thomas R. Pickering

Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, 2008

Discourse, Dissent, and Strategic Surprise: Formulating US Security Policy in an Age of Uncertainty

Janne E. Nolan and Douglas MacEachin

The Institute for the Study of Diplomacy (ISD) at Georgetown University launched a two-year study of the role of intelligence and policy failures in undermining the pursuit of U.S. strategic interests. This study focuses on why the United States has found itself unprepared to manage or contain adverse developments in regions of vital interest even in instances where there was extensive U.S. diplomatic and military involvement. The authors of this monograph selected five case studies of "strategic surprises" drawn from recent history. The cases were discussed and analyzed by a working group made up of senior practitioners and policy experts, a group established in the fall of 2004 that held five meetings sponsored by ISD from November 2004 through the spring of 2006.

Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, 2007

Voices of Hope, Voices of Frustration: Deciphering U.S. Admission and Visa Policies for International Students

Janine Keil

The first direct contact with the United States government that many people from around the world have is at an American consulate when they apply for a visa. The quality of this experience has a direct impact on our nation's international standing and competitive position, affecting U.S. business, academia and our global image. The September 11, 2006 terrorist attacks on the United States changed many aspects of the U.S. approach to foreign affairs, including U.S. admission—in particular visa—policies. Ms. Keil's resulting monograph seeks to explain the realities of, and unravel misperceptions about, U.S. admission policies for international students seeking higher education in the United States.

Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, 2006

2005 to 2000

America's Interests in the United Nations

Thomas Weston, Program Manager, and Parag Khanna, Rapporteur

During the UN General Assembly meeting in September 2003, Secretary-General Kofi Annan created a High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change to provide him and the member states of the United Nations with ideas about the policies and institutions required for the United Nations to be effective in the twenty-first century. The panel submitted to him in December 2004 a report entitled “A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibilities,” an analysis of how to improve the collective institutionalized response to the most pressing threats and challenges to global peace and security. The report also presented more than one hundred specific recommendations to the secretary-general and the member states.

The Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, with the support of the United Nations Foundation, developed a program to examine the panel’s report from the perspective of U.S. interests in the United Nations in the years ahead. The program brought together U.S. permanent representatives and long-serving acting permanent representatives to the United Nations from every U.S. administration of the last twenty-five years. They included ambassadors Thomas R. Pickering, Jeanne J. Kirkpatrick, Donald F. McHenry, Edward Perkins, James Cunningham, and Peter Burleigh.

Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, 2005

The Use of U.S. Power: Implications for U.S. Interests

Stanley R. Sloan, Robert G. Sutter, and Casimir A. Yost

At the opening of the twenty-first century, the United States stood alone as the one truly global power. That position carried with it opportunities and responsibilities of a new order of magnitude. The September 11 terrorist attacks produced profound sympathy and offers of assistance from around the world and particularly from our allies and partners in Europe and Asia. The United States, however, failed to build on the strong foundation offered by the wave of post-9/11 international support. International divisions have cut into U.S. influence around the globe. U.S. power remains unmatched, but the ability of the United States to meet its objectives in the war on terrorism, in the Middle East, and with its key allies has eroded. Against this backdrop, the Institute for the Study of Diplomacy at the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University initiated a project in mid-2003 to examine the consequences of this series of developments for U.S. interests. The institute’s director, Casimir A. Yost, Georgetown Professor Robert G. Sutter, and Stanley R. Sloan, visiting scholar at Middlebury College and director of the Atlantic Community Initiative, undertook to analyze the issue from the perspective of U.S. foreign policy challenges and the consequences of European and Asian responses to the use of U.S. power.

Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, 2005

Ellsworth Bunker—Global Troubleshooter, Vietnam Hawk

Howard B. Schaffer

In this first biography of Ellsworth Bunker (1894-1984), Howard Schaffer traces the life of one of postwar America's foremost diplomats from his formative years as a successful businessman and lobbyist through a long career in international affairs that climaxed with his six-year assignment as ambassador to South Vietnam and his lead role in the negotiation and enactment of the Panama Canal Treaties.

Named ambassador to Juan Peron's Argentina by Harry Truman in 1951, Bunker went on to serve six more presidents as ambassador to Italy, India, Nepal, and Vietnam and on special diplomatic assignments. Dean Acheson called him a rara avis, a political appointee who became a natural professional in diplomacy. Indians still recall his accomplishments a half-century after his years in New Delhi. His work there led a succession of presidents to assign Bunker difficult, politically sensitive troubleshooting tasks from Indonesia to Yemen to the Dominican Republic.

A dedicated "hawk," Bunker helped shape U.S. policy as ambassador to wartime Saigon. Using letters Bunker sent to his wife and recently declassified messages he exchanged with Henry Kissinger, Schaffer examines how Bunker promoted the war effort and how he regarded his mission. After leaving Saigon on his seventy-ninth birthday, Bunker went on to become a key figure in the negotiations during the Nixon, Ford, and Carter administrations that radically changed the operation and defense of the Panama Canal.

Published by The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill and London. ISBN: 0-8078-2825-4.

University of North Carolina Press, 2003

Coalitions: Building and Maintenance—Gulf War, Kosovo, Afghanistan, War on Terrorism

Andrew J. Pierre

This excellent overview of an apt, complex and controversial subject will tell you what worked and what didn't in past efforts to build coalitions to deal with crises and conflict. The clear secret is that strategic thinking, good planning, and careful preparation spell out the difference between success and failure in this increasingly important field of international affairs. — Thomas R. Pickering, U.S. Ambassador to the UN in the Gulf War, Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs during the Kosovo Conflict

Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, 2002

2000 to 1995

America's Place in the World

Daniel R. Russel

Mr. Russel's excellent essay on the post-Cold War world contains many valuable insights. In the face of today's complex international scene, which he documents brilliantly and with a sense of humor, he points out that there is no universal field theory of diplomacy to replace the 'predictability' of the Cold War. . . What is fascinating about Russel's first-rate assessment is the number of clear insights into domestic policy motivations for U.S. leadership and our role in the 'new world. . . .' It should be required reading for anyone interested in foreign affairs, professional, amateur, university student, think tanker, business person or 'NGOer.' — Thomas R. Pickering, Under Secretary for Political Affairs, Department of State

Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, 2000


Anchoring Third Wave Democracies: Prospects and Problems for U.S. Policy

Catharin E. Dalpino
Foreword by Casimir A. Yost

What role should the United States play in promoting and consolidating democracy around the world? The answer is not self-evident. Many nations have chosen a democratic path since the end of the Cold War, but democratic gains have frequently remained fragile. Americans debate not only whether to lend support to the expansion of democracy, but also how best to do so: through government action or private initiative, through incentives or disincentives, and so on. Catharin Dalpino . . . is highly qualified to contribute to the discussion of these issues. . . . she was Deputy Assistant Secretary of State in the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor during the first Clinton administration. — Casimir A. Yost, Director, Institute for the Study of Diplomacy

Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, 1998

Coalition, Coercion and Compromise

Gordon S. Brown
Foreword by Casimir A. Yost

A singular feature of the Gulf Crisis was the successful American effort to form, coordinate, maintain, and successfully employ an international coalition of unprecedented size and complexity. . . . However, the histories and studies to date have dealt only indirectly with the coalition-building effort. This study, by a diplomatic veteran of the crisis, is an effort to fill that gap--to look at the diplomacy of the coalition effort and its results, as well as to draw a number of lessons for future diplomacy. Ambassador Gordon Brown brought to this study the perspectives of a senior diplomat who had direct, firsthand experience in the American coalition-building efforts, as a result of his service as General H. Norman Schwarzkopf's political adviser during the crisis. Ambassador Brown has also provided insight into the interaction between diplomatic efforts to avoid conflict and military operational requirements. — Casimir A. Yost, Director, Institute for the Study of Diplomacy

Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, 1997

Who Needs Embassies?: How U.S. Missions Abroad Help Shape Our World

Mary Locke and Casimir A. Yost, Editors
Foreword by Max M. Kampelman

It is becoming increasingly accepted by the American people that our country's international responsibilities are and must undergo significant change as we move from the end of the Cold War into the twenty-first century. From German reunification to peace in Guatemala, from Middle East peace negotiations and North-South rapprochement on the Korean Peninsula to the end of apartheid in south Africa, this study provides firsthand reports of societies deeply involved in fluid and sometimes fragile transitions, all moving beyond rigidities imposed by the Cold War. We need to enter the onrushing next century true to our values and determined to advance the best interests of our country in an international community that will be increasingly gobalized as it feels the impact of dramatic new developments in science, technology, and communications. — Max M. Kampelman

Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, 1997

Checklist for the Future of Intelligence

Dr. John Hollister Hedley
Foreword by The Honorable Howard H. Baker Jr.

In the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995, the U.S. Congress chartered a bipartisan Commission on the Roles and Capabilities of the U.S. Intelligence Community to complete a study of intelligence reform by March 1996. Georgetown University’s Institute for the Study of Diplomacy (ISD) organized a series of meetings entitled "American Intelligence for the Twenty-First Century: A Colloquium on the Future of Intelligence After the Cold War." I was pleased to accept the Institute’s invitation to serve as chairman.

The colloquium’s aim was to assist the work of the Commission by facilitating informed thinking and dialogue about approaches to intelligence reform. ISD has sponsored an ongoing dialogue and several seminars involving current and former practitioners and policy analysts to produce insights and to improve communications and understanding.

Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, 1995

1995 to 1990

Inside An Embassy: The Political Role of Ambassadors Abroad

Robert H. Miller

Inside and Embassy: The Political Role of Ambassadors Abroad examines the many functions of the political section of U.S. embassies around the world—gathering political information, reporting and analysis, influencing other nations, and negotiation. The book also takes a look at clandestine intelligence collection and assesses the limits and possibilities of U.S. diplomacy. Accompanying the text are illustrative case histories written by U.S. diplomats on political activities such as reporting from Brezhnev's Moscow and influencing political transition in the Philippines. The appendix contains actual declassified cables from posts abroad, including an ambassador's "end-of-tour assessment" and "MemCon" analyzing a country on the brink of war. A bibliography of selected readings on diplomats and diplomacy offers readers a wealth of additional sources.

Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, 1992